At present, the dispute over Layer 1 and Lay 2 solutions on scaling of Ethereum public chain remains controversial. It is believed in the industry that, no matter how we emphasis on the advantages of Layer 2 solution, it is still a compromise in nature to balance the benefits of multiple parties. Layer 2 projects will also receive some economic benefits and network traffic that originally belong to Layer 1. For Layer 1 and Layer 2 solutions, a nice connection of their economic mechanisms will be win-win, while a unsuccessful connection will lead to a endogenous fork.
Ethereum, the most widely used network, is currently in the dilemma of upgrade. CUN innovatively starts from PoA consensus, and evolves to PoS consensus, and finally to PoS+BFT (Byzantine fault tolerance) consensus, promoting BFT consensus and reducing communication frequency through hierarchical PBFT to avoid exponential decline of consensus efficiency when node number exceeds 100.